What is a negotiated or plea agreement?

A plea agreement is when both sides, the prosecution and the defense, agree that the defendant will voluntarily give up their right to a trial and admit their guilt by pleading guilty to the criminal charge(s) before the judge. In doing so, the defendant will be agreeing to all the conditions set out in the plea agreement. The Judge can either accept the plea agreement or reject it. If the defendant pleas guilty there would not be a trial to determine guilt or innocence. 

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1. What is a public defender or defense attorney?
2. Who is the defendant/offender?
3. What is a bond hearing?
4. What is the difference between a criminal case and civil case?
5. What is a preliminary hearing?
6. What is a Grand Jury?
7. What is an indictment?
8. What is an arraignment?
9. What is a pre-trial?
10. How can an offender plea not guilty if he/she made a statement to the police or there are witnesses to the crime?
11. Who decides if the defendant pleas guilty or goes to trial?
12. What is the purpose of a trial?
13. What is a sentencing hearing?
14. What is a pre-sentence investigation (PSI)?
15. What is a negotiated or plea agreement?
16. What is the difference between a misdemeanor and a felony?
17. What happens if the defendant is sentenced to the Department of Corrections (prison)?
18. How much of the sentence will a defendant have to actually serve?