What is the purpose of a trial?

The purpose of a trial is to determine whether or not the defendant is guilty or not guilty of the charges filed against him/her. If the defendant were to plea guilty, a trial does not happen. It is the decision of the defendant whether it is a trial by jury (12 people selected from the jury pool of citizens on jury duty) or a bench trial (Judge only, no jury). If trial by jury, the jury decides guilt or innocence of the defendant. A finding of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt has to be a unanimous vote by all 12 jurors. The jury is then released. The Judge who presides over the jury trial determines the sentence on a later date. If a verdict of not guilty is found, the case ends there and no further court hearings are needed. 

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1. What is a public defender or defense attorney?
2. Who is the defendant/offender?
3. What is a bond hearing?
4. What is the difference between a criminal case and civil case?
5. What is a preliminary hearing?
6. What is a Grand Jury?
7. What is an indictment?
8. What is an arraignment?
9. What is a pre-trial?
10. How can an offender plea not guilty if he/she made a statement to the police or there are witnesses to the crime?
11. Who decides if the defendant pleas guilty or goes to trial?
12. What is the purpose of a trial?
13. What is a sentencing hearing?
14. What is a pre-sentence investigation (PSI)?
15. What is a negotiated or plea agreement?
16. What is the difference between a misdemeanor and a felony?
17. What happens if the defendant is sentenced to the Department of Corrections (prison)?
18. How much of the sentence will a defendant have to actually serve?